Exogenous Ketones

Technical Article

Exogenous ketones are a milestone in modern nutrition, opening up new possibilities in therapy and health promotion. Doctors, pharmacists and alternative practitioners are already using them effectively to provide holistic support for patients.

This page is dedicated to the fascinating and scientifically complex topic of exogenous ketones and their versatile applications. Exogenous ketones, a revolutionary discovery in the world of nutrition and medicine, offer a wide range of potential health benefits and therapeutic applications. From aiding in weight management to improving athletic performance, to treating neurological disorders and metabolic diseases - the possibilities opened by exogenous ketones are diverse and promising.

We explore the scientific foundations, discuss current research findings, illuminate practical application guides, and take a look into the future of this emerging field of research. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of these fascinating substances and explore their potential impacts on health and well-being.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. What are Exogenous Ketones?
  3. The Benefits of Exogenous Ketones
  4. Therapeutic Support
  5. Practical Applications
  6. Risks and Side Effects
  7. Application Guide
  8. Future Outlook
  9. Glossary
  10. References


This chapter introduces the world of exogenous ketones, highlights their growing popularity in the health and fitness industry, and discusses their various medical applications. The aim is to create a basic understanding of the role and potential of exogenous ketones in various areas.

Growing Popularity of Exogenous Ketones

In recent years, the topic of "Exogenous Ketones" has increasingly gained importance in the health and fitness world. These substances, provided to the body as an external energy source, have especially come to the forefront in discussions about alternative nutritional strategies and medical applications. Exogenous ketones, often consumed in the form of dietary supplements, offer an innovative way to achieve ketosis – a state in which the body uses fatty acids instead of glucose for energy production. This growing interest is partly due to the diverse potential benefits that exogenous ketones offer for various aspects of human health and performance.

Diverse Medical Applications

The fascination with exogenous ketones lies not only in their role as an alternative energy source but also in their potential for various medical applications. Originally used in the treatment of conditions such as epilepsy, the possibilities of exogenous ketones are now being explored in a broader spectrum of medical fields. These include the treatment of metabolic diseases, support in neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly also application in cancer therapy. These substances could play a key role in the future treatment of chronic and acute diseases, providing not only alternative energy sources but also potentially therapeutic effects at the cellular and systemic level.

This chapter lays the foundation for a deeper understanding of exogenous ketones by outlining their significance, functionality, and potential in the context of the health and fitness industry. Subsequent chapters will delve deeper into these topics and detail the specific applications, benefits, and practical aspects of using exogenous ketones.

Historical Perspective and Current Research

The exploration and application of exogenous ketones have a relatively young history, but their roots go back to the early study of human metabolism. Originally investigated in the context of fasting and ketogenic diets, the physiological effects of ketone bodies have only been more precisely recognized and used for therapeutic purposes in recent decades. Current research focuses on understanding how exogenous ketones affect the body and optimizing their application in various medical and athletic areas. This research interest is reflected in a growing number of scientific publications and clinical studies that focus on the efficiency and safety of exogenous ketones.

Societal and Economic Relevance

Exogenous ketones are not only interesting from a scientific point of view but have also gained significant societal and economic importance. With increasing interest in personal health, weight management, and performance enhancement among both amateur and professional athletes, the market for exogenous ketones and ketogenic products has grown rapidly. This growth reflects the increased awareness and demand for alternative nutritional strategies that go beyond traditional diet approaches. The economic significance of these products is underscored by their presence in health stores, pharmacies, and online platforms.


This introductory chapter provided a comprehensive overview of the world of exogenous ketones. Starting with their increasing popularity in the health and fitness industry, through their diverse medical applications, historical perspective, and current research, to their societal and economic significance. This chapter serves as the basis for a deeper understanding of the subsequent specific topics and discussions about exogenous ketones and their role in modern healthcare and personal well-being.


What are Exogenous Ketones?

This chapter explains what exogenous ketones are, how they differ from endogenous ketones, and in what forms they can be administered to the body. It provides a detailed overview of the scientific foundations and biochemical processes associated with exogenous ketones.

Basics and Definition

Exogenous ketones are a fascinating group of substances that are gaining increasing attention in the world of nutritional science and medicine. They fundamentally differ from endogenous ketones, which the human body produces in a natural metabolic state known as ketosis. While endogenous ketones are internally generated in response to low-carbohydrate diets or fasting, exogenous ketones are externally supplied, mostly in the form of dietary supplements. These ketones are synthetic substances designed to put the body directly into a state of ketosis, without the need to reduce carbohydrates or undergo fasting periods.

External Supply and Forms

The supply of exogenous ketones can occur in various ways, with methods differing in their efficiency and practical application. Most commonly, they are consumed in the form of ketone salts or ketone esters. Ketone salts are typically combinations of ketones with minerals like sodium, potassium, or magnesium and tend to be more readily available and cost-effective. Ketone esters, on the other hand, are a more potent form of exogenous ketones, administered directly as esters of the ketone molecule. Although more effective, ketone esters are often more expensive and may have a less pleasant taste.

This chapter delves deeply into how exogenous ketones work in the body, their biochemical interactions, and the potential effects on human metabolism. It also explains the scientific basis behind their application, to provide a comprehensive understanding of their function and benefits. The information in this chapter forms the foundation for further discussion on the application areas, benefits, and potential risks of exogenous ketones in the following chapters.

Biochemical Mechanism

The biochemical mechanism of exogenous ketones is a key aspect of their understanding. Once ingested, they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and increase the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood. This increase mimics the state of ketosis, normally achieved through a low-carbohydrate diet or fasting. In ketosis, the body uses ketones as the primary energy source instead of glucose, leading to various metabolic changes. These changes can impact weight management, energy balance, cognitive functions, and even the regulation of certain disease processes.

Physiological Effects and Benefits

The physiological effects of exogenous ketones are versatile. By raising the ketone bodies in the blood, they can contribute to improved energy efficiency, reduced inflammatory responses, and enhanced cognitive functions. Additionally, they are of interest to individuals following a ketogenic diet, as they can help achieve and maintain ketosis more quickly. This is particularly useful for those who have difficulty adhering to a strict low-carbohydrate diet or for those who could benefit medically from the advantages of ketosis.

Applications in Dietetics and Therapy

Exogenous ketones also find application in various therapeutic and dietary contexts. They are used, for example, in the treatment of epilepsy, in weight reduction, and in some cases in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. Their ability to quickly induce ketosis makes them a valuable tool in nutritional medicine and specialized diet plans.


In this chapter, exogenous ketones have been comprehensively illuminated – from their definition and various forms of administration to their biochemical mechanism and physiological effects. This understanding is fundamental for considering their applications in later chapters, which will deal with specific areas of use, the resulting benefits, and potential risks. Knowledge of the basics of exogenous ketones is crucial to understand their increasing role in the health and fitness world, as well as in medical practice.


The Benefits of Exogenous Ketones

This section discusses in detail the various health benefits that exogenous ketones can offer. From boosting energy levels to enhancing mental performance, every facet of their potential positive impacts is examined.

Higher Energy Levels

Exogenous ketones have the remarkable ability to influence the body's energy metabolism, leading to increased and more stable energy levels. By consuming these ketones, the body is put into a state of ketosis, where fats are used as the primary energy source instead of carbohydrates. This results in a constant supply of energy, free from the usual fluctuations caused by glucose metabolism. This effect is particularly noticeable during long workdays or endurance training sessions, where continuous energy supply is crucial. Users often report increased endurance and a generally higher level of activity throughout the day.

Sustainable Weight Loss

Exogenous ketones support weight management by putting the body into a state that promotes fat metabolism. In ketosis, the body uses stored fat as an energy source, boosting fat burning and leading to the breakdown of fat reserves. Additionally, ketones reduce hunger by increasing the feeling of satiety and suppressing appetite. This can be particularly helpful for people who struggle to control their calorie intake. Weight loss with exogenous ketones is especially effective when combined with a calorie-controlled diet and regular physical activity. Many users experience a noticeable reduction in body fat and improvement in body composition.

Enhanced Muscle Building

Exogenous ketones can also be useful in the context of muscle building. They provide a consistent energy source that is beneficial during long and intense training sessions. This sustained energy supply allows athletes to intensify their workouts and possibly extend the duration of training. In addition, exogenous ketones can improve the recovery phase post-training. By reducing inflammatory responses and providing an efficient energy source, they support muscle building and regeneration. Athletes often report faster recovery and reduced muscle fatigue after incorporating exogenous ketones into their nutrition regimen.

Better Sleep

Improving sleep quality is another benefit of exogenous ketones. By stabilizing blood sugar levels and reducing energy fluctuations, they can contribute to a more restful and restorative sleep. Users of exogenous ketones often report a decrease in the time it takes to fall asleep, a reduction in nighttime awakenings, and generally deeper sleep. This improved sleep, in turn, has positive effects on overall health, well-being, and cognitive performance the following day.

Sustained Stress Resistance

Exogenous ketones can also contribute to improved stress resistance. By stabilizing energy metabolism and reducing dependence on glucose fluctuations, the body can respond more effectively to stressful situations. Users often report a more balanced emotional state and an increased ability to cope with stressful situations. This is particularly helpful in high-stress professions or during periods of intense personal or professional pressure.

Increased Mental Performance

The enhancement of mental performance through exogenous ketones is a particularly interesting aspect. They can improve cognitive clarity, concentration, and overall brain function. Ketones serve as an efficient energy source for the brain and can boost mental performance, especially in situations that require high concentration and mental stamina. Many users report improved focus, quicker thinking, and generally increased mental clarity, supporting them in their daily work or academic requirements.


This chapter thoroughly discussed the diverse benefits of exogenous ketones. From boosting energy levels and aiding in weight loss to muscle building, improving sleep quality, stress resistance, and enhancing mental performance, the use of exogenous ketones offers a wide range of health benefits. These properties make them a valuable component of a balanced diet and lifestyle.


Therapeutic Support

This chapter focuses on the role of exogenous ketones in medical research and practice. It covers their application in the treatment and research of various diseases, including type 2 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and cancer.

Introduction to Therapeutic Applications

This chapter is dedicated to discussing the therapeutic applications of exogenous ketones. Due to their unique metabolic properties, exogenous ketones offer promising approaches in the treatment and prevention of a range of diseases and health conditions. We consider here how exogenous ketones are applied in various medical fields and how they can contribute to health promotion.

Metabolic Disorders

  • Type 2 Diabetes: Exogenous ketones show promising results in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They support the body's metabolic flexibility by shifting the focus from glucose to fat burning. This can lead to improved insulin sensitivity and stabilized blood sugar levels. A key benefit of exogenous ketones is their ability to lower blood sugar levels without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. However, it is important to note that they are not recommended for type 1 diabetes, as there is a risk of ketoacidosis.

  • Insulin Resistance: In insulin resistance, a precursor to type 2 diabetes, exogenous ketones can be helpful. By stimulating the body to derive energy more efficiently from fat instead of glucose, they can contribute to reducing insulin resistance. This improves overall metabolic health and can reduce the long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The use of exogenous ketones in this context can be particularly beneficial for individuals with prediabetes or metabolic syndrome.

  • Obesity: Exogenous ketones can also be used therapeutically in the context of obesity. By inducing a ketogenic state, they promote fat burning and contribute to weight reduction. In addition to boosting fat burning, exogenous ketones can also reduce hunger and increase the feeling of fullness, leading to lower calorie intake. This makes them a valuable addition to a holistic approach to weight reduction that also includes dietary changes and physical activity.

Neurological and Mental Disorders

  • Alzheimer's and Dementia: Exogenous ketones could play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's and other dementia diseases. They provide the brain with an alternative energy source, which is especially important in impaired glucose uptake. This could help preserve cognitive functions or slow down their decline. In addition, studies have shown that ketones have neuroprotective properties, meaning they support the health of neurons and contribute to maintaining brain functions.

  • Depression: Exogenous ketones have the potential to stabilize mood and could thus have a positive impact on the treatment of depression. They affect the neurotransmitters in the brain responsible for mood regulation. By providing an alternative energy source for the brain, they can help mitigate the mood swings often associated with depression. In addition, they support neuronal health and can thus contribute to improving overall mental well-being.

  • Multiple Sclerosis: In multiple sclerosis, a disease affecting the central nervous system, exogenous ketones could be beneficial due to their anti-inflammatory properties. They can reduce the neuroinflammatory processes associated with this disease. They could also help protect or slow down the degeneration of the myelin sheath, which is attacked in multiple sclerosis. This can lead to an improvement in symptoms and a slowing of the disease's progression.

Cancer Diseases

Exogenous ketones offer new perspectives in oncology and have the potential to significantly influence the treatment of cancer diseases. Through their unique impact on the metabolism of both cancer cells and healthy cells, they can play a key role in complementary cancer therapy. They offer not only possibilities for the direct fight against cancer cells but also for improving quality of life and reducing the side effects of standard therapies.

General Perspective

  • Mechanism of Action: Exogenous ketones influence the energy metabolism of cancer cells. Many types of cancer are heavily dependent on glucose as an energy source. Exogenous ketones reduce glucose availability and force cancer cells to switch to less efficient metabolic pathways. This metabolic shift can slow down the growth and spread of cancer cells.

  • Supporting Standard Therapy: They can also enhance the effectiveness of traditional cancer therapies like chemotherapy and radiation. By altering the tumor environment, exogenous ketones can increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to these therapies.

Specific Cancer Types

  • Brain Tumors: Brain tumors, especially glioblastomas, often show increased glucose uptake. Exogenous ketones could be particularly effective here as they reduce the glucose dependence of these tumors, potentially impairing their growth.

  • Breast Cancer: In certain types of breast cancer, the use of exogenous ketones could slow down growth and metastasis. They affect the metabolism of cancer cells and can improve treatment outcomes.

Adjuvant Therapy

  • Improving Quality of Life: Exogenous ketones can contribute to improving the quality of life in cancer patients. They provide an alternative energy source that can reduce fatigue and weakness, symptoms that are common in cancer and its treatment.

  • Reduction of Side Effects: They can also mitigate some of the side effects of chemotherapy, such as nausea and loss of appetite, by improving the overall energy status and helping to maintain muscle mass.

Research and Studies

  • Current Studies: Numerous preclinical studies have shown the potential of exogenous ketones in cancer treatment. Clinical trials are underway to assess their safety, effectiveness, and role as part of a comprehensive cancer therapy.

  • Future Prospects: Research in this area is promising and could lead to new, complementary treatment approaches in oncology in the future.

Inflammatory and Immunological Conditions

  • Silent Inflammation: Silent inflammations, often inconspicuous but long-lasting, can lead to various chronic diseases. Exogenous ketones show promising anti-inflammatory properties that can be effective in combating such inflammations. By modulating inflammatory pathways and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, they can help reduce the intensity of silent inflammations. This is particularly relevant for diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and certain types of cancer, where silent inflammations play a central role.

  • Post-Covid Syndrome: Post-Covid syndrome, also known as long-Covid, includes a range of symptoms that persist after an acute COVID-19 infection. These symptoms can include fatigue, breathing difficulties, persistent inflammatory reactions, and neurological problems. Exogenous ketones could play a supportive role in the recovery phase, by dampening inflammatory processes and optimizing energy production. Their anti-inflammatory properties can help reduce inflammation in the body while providing energy for regeneration and recovery.

Eating Disorders

Anorexia, medically known as anorexia nervosa, is a serious eating disorder characterized by extreme weight loss and fear of weight gain. The role of exogenous ketones in the treatment of anorexia is increasingly being explored, as they have the potential to modify the disturbed energy metabolism in affected individuals.

  • Normalization of Energy Metabolism: In anorexia, energy metabolism is often impaired. Exogenous ketones can serve as an alternative energy source and thus contribute to the normalization of metabolism.

  • Promotion of Weight Gain: By providing an efficient energy source, exogenous ketones can help promote healthy weight gain. This is particularly important as patients with anorexia often struggle to gain weight.

  • Adaptation to Fat Burning: Exogenous ketones teach the body to burn fats more efficiently. This is relevant in anorexia, as the body often enters a state of fat burning due to the lack of food intake.

However, it is important to emphasize that the use of exogenous ketones in the treatment of anorexia should be part of a comprehensive treatment plan monitored by medical professionals. This approach should also include psychological support and nutritional counseling to ensure a holistic and effective treatment of the eating disorder.

Promotion of Sleep and Recovery

Sleep disorders, manifesting as difficulties in falling asleep, staying asleep, or inadequate sleep quality, can have a significant impact on overall health and well-being. Exogenous ketones show promising potential in this area.

  • Stabilization of Blood Sugar Levels: Exogenous ketones can help stabilize blood sugar levels. Fluctuations in blood sugar levels can disrupt the sleep cycle and lead to sleep problems. Therefore, more stable blood sugar regulation can contribute to better sleep.

  • Reduction of Energy Fluctuations: Energy fluctuations in the body can also affect sleep. Exogenous ketones provide a consistent energy source that can minimize these fluctuations. This may lead to a calmer and deeper sleep.

  • Impact on the Nervous System: There is also evidence that exogenous ketones can positively affect the nervous system and thus contribute to a more relaxed state conducive to sleep.


This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the therapeutic applications of exogenous ketones in various medical fields. From the treatment of metabolic disorders and neurological diseases to support in cancer, inflammatory conditions, eating disorders, and sleep disturbances, exogenous ketones show great potential in modern medicine. Their versatile effects and ongoing research in this field underline their importance as promising therapeutic agents.


Practical Applications

The fifth chapter deals with the practical applications of exogenous ketones in everyday life, in the nutrition of athletes, and in medical therapy. It provides practical insights into the versatile uses of these substances.

Application in Athletes

Exogenous ketones are increasingly gaining importance in the field of sports nutrition. Their application in athletes focuses mainly on the following aspects:

  • Improving Energy Efficiency: Exogenous ketones provide a direct energy source that can be efficiently used by the body during intense training sessions. This can be particularly useful in sports that require long endurance.

  • Reduction of Fatigue: By providing an alternative energy source, exogenous ketones can help delay muscle fatigue, leading to improved performance.

  • Accelerated Recovery Processes: There is evidence that exogenous ketones can shorten recovery time after training by supporting muscle building and repair.

  • Optimizing Metabolism: For athletes aiming for a ketogenic metabolism, exogenous ketones can help achieve and maintain this state more quickly.

Medical Therapy and Everyday Life

In medical treatment and everyday life, exogenous ketones are also gaining increasing attention:

  • Support for Metabolic Diseases: Exogenous ketones can be helpful in the treatment of conditions such as type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome by contributing to the stabilization of blood sugar levels.

  • Use in Neurological Diseases: There are studies that indicate positive effects in the treatment of neurological diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. The ketogenic diet, supported by exogenous ketones, could play a role in this.

  • Weight Management and Appetite Control: In everyday life, exogenous ketones can help control appetite and support weight management, especially in combination with a calorie-reduced diet.

  • Enhancing Mental Performance: By providing an alternative energy source for the brain, exogenous ketones can also contribute to the improvement of cognitive functions and to the increase in mental clarity.


Risks and Side Effects

This chapter discusses the potential risks and side effects of using exogenous ketones. It emphasizes the importance of cautious use and the need for medical consultation to avoid unwanted effects.

Need for Caution

When using exogenous ketones, certain caution is necessary. Important aspects include:

  • Medical Consultation: Consultation with a doctor is advisable, especially for individuals with pre-existing health conditions, pregnant women, and nursing mothers.

  • Individual Reactions: Every body reacts differently to exogenous ketones. An adapted and gradually increasing dosage can help determine personal tolerance.

  • Interactions with Medications: It is advisable to clarify potential interactions with existing medications with a doctor in advance.

Potential Risks

Although exogenous ketones are well tolerated by many, side effects can occur in some cases:

  • Gastrointestinal Discomfort: Mild nausea or digestive disturbances may occur in the first few days of intake.

  • Changes in Electrolyte Balance: Occasionally, there can be slight shifts in electrolyte balance, manifesting as symptoms like mild headaches or fatigue.

  • Ketosis Level: Appropriate dosing is important to avoid excessive ketosis, which can occur in rare cases.

  • Long-term Effects: The long-term effects are still the subject of ongoing research and should be considered.

In general, the intake of exogenous ketones should be considered a supplement, to be used in moderation and taking into account one's own health status. A balanced diet and healthy lifestyle remain the cornerstones for well-being.

image_knowledge_ketones_inline_08_application guide

Application Guide

This chapter serves as a practical guide for the application of exogenous ketones. It provides guidelines on dosage, intake, and best practices for safe and effective use.

Dosage Guidelines

The correct dosage of exogenous ketones depends on various factors, such as individual health status, the goal of supplementation, and physical activity. It is important for beginners to start with a low dose and gradually increase it to assess tolerance and minimize potential side effects.

  • Starting Dose: Begin with a small amount, typically between 0.5 to 1 gram per day.

  • Increasing: Depending on tolerance, the dose can be slowly increased, typically up to 2-3 grams per day.

  • Individual Adjustment: The optimal dose can vary, so attention should be paid to the body's response. The dose can be adjusted if necessary.

  • Regular Monitoring: Particularly for individuals with metabolic diseases or other health concerns, dosage should be under medical supervision.

Recommendations for Intake

The intake of exogenous ketones should be targeted to achieve maximum benefits. The timing and manner of intake can vary depending on individual goals.

  • Morning and Afternoon: For optimum results, exogenous ketones should be taken twice a day approx. 1½ hours before lunch and 1½ hours before dinner. If your morning or afternoon low occurs earlier or you feel hungry, then take it earlier.

  • Before Exercise: Taking it before training increases energy efficiency and endurance and therefore also training success.

  • For the Morning Start: If you find it difficult to start the day with the necessary energy, take the ketones in the morning for breakfast. However, they should not replace breakfast if possible.

  • Form of Intake: Exogenous ketones are available in various forms, including powders and liquid supplements. The choice depends on personal preferences and tolerance.

It is important to emphasize that exogenous ketones are not a substitute for a healthy diet. They should be used as a supplement to a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. Before starting supplementation with exogenous ketones, a health professional should be consulted, especially if there are existing health issues or specific dietary requirements.


Future Prospects

This chapter reflects on the future potential of exogenous ketones in various medical and performance-related areas. It provides an outlook on the expected advances and developments in the research and application of exogenous ketones.

Potential in Various Areas

Exogenous ketones are on the threshold of diverse applications in health, wellness, and performance optimization. Their potential extends across several areas:

  • Medical Applications: There is increasing evidence that exogenous ketones can be helpful in the treatment of neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's, as well as in managing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  • Sports and Fitness: For athletes, exogenous ketones can represent an efficient energy source, improving endurance and shortening recovery time after intense training.

  • Weight Management and Dietetics: Through their ability to suppress appetite and influence metabolism, they could play a key role in weight loss programs.

  • Cognitive Enhancement: The potential effects on brain function and concentration open up applications in areas requiring high mental performance.

Expectations and Predictions

The future of exogenous ketones is promising, but further research is needed to fully understand and optimize their efficacy and safety. Some expectations and predictions include:

  • Further Clinical Studies: Extensive clinical studies are likely to be conducted in the coming years to confirm and better understand the efficacy and safety profiles of exogenous ketones in various application areas.

  • Personalized Application: Future developments could focus on personalized medicine, where exogenous ketone therapy is tailored to the individual needs and metabolic characteristics of people.

  • Innovations in Product Development: Continuous advancement in supplement formulations could improve the efficiency and user-friendliness of exogenous ketones.

  • Broader Acceptance and Use: With increasing research and awareness, exogenous ketones could become an integral part in preventive health care, in the treatment of metabolic diseases, and in performance optimization.

Overall, exogenous ketones show great potential to influence the health and wellness field in diverse ways. However, their future role will largely depend on scientific research and the development of new application strategies.



This chapter contains a glossary that explains important terms and concepts related to exogenous ketones. It serves as a useful resource for readers to better understand specialized terminology.


  • Acetoacetate: One of the primary ketone bodies produced in the liver from fatty acids.
  • Acetone: A ketone body that is a byproduct of fatty acid breakdown and is excreted through breath and urine.


  • Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB): A primary ketone body formed in the liver from fatty acids and serves as an important energy source.
  • Bioavailability: A measure of the amount and rate at which an active substance (like exogenous ketones) enters the bloodstream and is available at the site of action.


  • Cell Energy: Energy used by cells for various functions, where ketones can serve as an alternative energy source.
  • Cell Metabolism: The process of energy production and utilization in cells, where ketones can play a role.
  • Conversion: The process of converting nutrients into other forms in the body, including the conversion of fatty acids into ketones.


  • Diabetes Mellitus: A metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels where ketones can play a role in treatment.
  • Dietary Supplements: Products that contain nutrients or other substances with nutritional or physiological effects, including exogenous ketones.
  • Dietetics: The science and practice of nutrition for the prevention and treatment of diseases.


  • Endogenous Ketones: Ketones that are naturally produced in the body in response to fasting, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense physical activity.
  • Epilepsy: A neurological disorder where exogenous ketones and ketogenic diets can be used therapeutically.
  • Exogenous Ketones: Ketone bodies introduced from outside, often in the form of dietary supplements, to induce a ketogenic state in the body.


  • Fatty Acids: The main component of fats in the body, broken down for energy production during a low-carbohydrate diet.


  • Glucose: A simple sugar that is the main energy source for cells.


  • Hyperketonemia: An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, often resulting from the intake of exogenous ketones or a ketogenic diet.


  • Insulin: A hormone that regulates blood sugar levels and whose role can be influenced by ketones.


  • Ketogenesis: The process of forming ketone bodies in the liver.
  • Ketogenic Diet: A diet low in carbohydrates and high in fats that puts the body in a state of ketosis.
  • Ketone Bodies: Molecules formed during the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver and serve as an energy source.
  • Ketosis: A metabolic state in which the body primarily uses fat instead of carbohydrates for energy production.


  • Lipolysis: The breakdown of fat cells for energy production, which can be promoted by a ketogenic diet or ketones.


  • Metabolic Disorder: A disease characterized by abnormal function of metabolism, where ketones can be used therapeutically.
  • Metabolism: The process of converting food into energy at the cellular level.
  • Muscle Building: The process of increasing muscle mass, which can be influenced by a ketogenic diet.


  • Neuroprotection: The protection of nerve cells from damage or degeneration, where ketones can play a role.


  • Oxidation: Chemical process by which substances like fatty acids are converted into energy.


  • Pathophysiology: The study of changes in body functions due to diseases, including the role of ketones.
  • Phosphatidylcholine: An essential component of cell membranes, involved in signal transmission and fat metabolism.


  • Regeneration: Process of recovery, repair, or renewal of cells and tissues, where ketones can provide support.


  • Sports Nutrition: Nutritional strategies aimed at optimizing athletic performance, often incorporating ketones.


  • Therapeutic Ketosis: The targeted use of a ketogenic diet or exogenous ketones for the treatment of certain diseases.
  • Triglycerides: A type of fat that circulates in the blood and whose levels can be influenced by ketones.


  • Vitality: A state of physical or mental energy and liveliness, which can be enhanced by ketones.


  • Weight Management: The process of maintaining or changing body weight, where ketones can play a role.


The final chapter provides a comprehensive bibliography with sources that can be used for a deeper engagement with the topic of exogenous ketones. It is a valuable resource for anyone looking to expand their knowledge.

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  18. Hashim S.A., Van Itallie T.B. (2014). "Ketone body therapy: from the ketogenic diet to the oral administration of ketone ester." Journal of Lipid Research, p.1818–1826. doi: 10.1194/jlr.R046599. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617348/]
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The empine team would like to answer all your questions

Ketogenic nutrition, ketosis and exogenous ketones are a complex and extensive subject area. We at empine would like to support you in ensuring that all your questions are answered comprehensibly and comprehensively. Therefore, in this section, in addition to the previous content, you will find frequently asked questions specifically on the topic of this page. If you do not find the answers here or do not find them detailed enough, you are welcome to send your question directly to us or contact us directly.

What are exogenous ketones and how do they promote health?

Exogenous ketones are dietary supplements that increase the body's natural ketone levels. They can therefore contribute to weight loss, improved cognitive functions and increased energy. Due to their metabolism-regulating and inflammation-reducing effect, Prüvit's exogenous ketones are used as an adjuvant therapy for various diseases.
How quickly do exogenous ketones work?
In general, the effect varies from patient to patient. However, some effects often appear very early on, such as more energy and greater mental clarity. Sustainable weight loss, metabolic changes and the reduction of silent inflammation, on the other hand, take considerably longer. Initial successes can be seen after around 3 months. Comprehensive therapy usually takes 6-12 months.
How should exogenous ketones be taken?

The ketones are supplied in the form of a powder. This is then dissolved in half a liter to a liter of water and drunk. It is important to take one or two rations a day at regular intervals.

Do exogenous ketones have side effects?
As it is not a drug, there are no side effects in the true sense of the word. Especially at the beginning of the intake, fatigue, acne or softer stools may occur due to the detoxification process.
For which diseases are exogenous ketones already being used today?
Science has now shown that ketone bodies trigger many positive processes in the body. This is why they can and are used in many different ways - usually as an adjunct. These include sleep disorders in particular,
obesity, type 2 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, silent inflammation, depression, Alzheimer's disease and certain types of cancer.

How do doctors and alternative practitioners integrate exogenous ketones into treatment?

Healthcare professionals can use exogenous ketones as part of a holistic treatment plan. In many cases, the patient's already weakened body is strengthened in a healthy way. Often, lasting changes in the patient's behavior are also necessary, such as more exercise or a change in diet. Exogenous ketones can provide very good support here.

Do exogenous ketones require a prescription?
No. Exogenous ketones are freely available for sale, as they are not classified as a drug but as a dietary supplement.
As a doctor, pharmacist or alternative practitioner, do I have to have the ketones in stock?
No. Every patient can order the exogenous ketones themselves. You just send the patients a corresponding link.
Not all topics have been answered yet? Do not hesitate to ask!

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